Saturday, 9 February 2008

Shiji 94 - Biography of Tian Dan

田 儋 列 傳 第 三 十 四
Thirty fourth biography : Tian Dan

    田 儋 者 , 狄 人 也 , 故 齊 王 田 氏 族 也 。 儋 從 弟 田 榮 , 榮 弟 田 橫 , 皆 豪 , 宗 彊 , 能 得 人 。
Tian Dan was a native of Di. He was a Tian from the family of the ancient kings of Qi. He had a cousin named Tian Rong, who had a younger brother named Tian Heng. They were all braves from a strong clan, which attracted a lot of clients.   

陳 涉 之 初 起 王 楚 也 , 使 周 市 略 定 魏 地 , 北 至 狄 ,狄 城 守 。 田 儋 詳 為 縛 其 奴 , 從 少 年 之 廷 , 欲 謁 殺 奴 。 見 狄 令 , 因 擊 殺 令 , 而 召 豪 吏 子 弟 曰 : 「 諸 侯 皆 反 秦 自 立 , 齊 , 古 之 建 國 , 儋 , 田 氏 , 當 王 。 」 遂 自 立 為 齊 王 , 發 兵 以 擊 周 市 。 周 市 軍 還 去 , 田 儋 因 率 兵 東 略 定 齊 地 。
When Chen She rebelled and claimed the throne of Chu, he sent Zhou Shi invade and pacify the territory of Wei. As he arrived in Di, in the north, the people stayed inside their walls. Tian Dan then bound one of his servants, and went with a number of young men to the governor’s palace, under the pretense that he wanted to inform the governor that he intended to have his servant executed. When he met the governor of Di, he struck him with his sword, and killed him. Then, he summoned the officials and braves of Di, and their sons and brothers, and told them : “All the feudal princes have revolted against Qin and reclaimed their kingdoms. Qi is a very old state, and I, Dan, belong to the Tian clan. Therefore, I shall be king.” He then proclaimed himself king of Qi, and assembled an army to attack Zhou Shi. The armies of Zhou Shi had to flee, and Tian Dan led his soldiers east to occupy and pacify the land of Qi.   

秦 將 章 邯 圍 魏 王 咎 於 臨 濟 , 急 。 魏 王 請 救 於 齊 ,齊 王 田 儋 將 兵 救 魏 。 章 邯 夜 銜 枚 擊 , 大 破 齊 、 魏軍 , 殺 田 儋 於 臨 濟 下 。 儋 弟 田 榮 收 儋 餘 兵 東 走 東 阿 。
Zhang Han, a general of Qin, was besieging the king of Wei, Jiu, in Linji, and the city was about to fall. The king of Wei asked help from Qi, and Tian Dan, the king of Qi, led his army to rescue Wei. Zhang Han sent troops, at night, to ambush them, cut the armies of Qi and Wei in to pieces, and killed Tian Dan before the walls of Linji. His cousin, Tian Rong, rallied the surviving troops of Tian Dan, and fled east to Dong’E.   

齊 人 聞 王 田 儋 死 , 迺 立 故 齊 王 建 之 弟 田 假 為 齊 王, 田 角 為 相 , 田 閒 為 將 , 以 距 諸 侯 。
When the people of Qi heard that Tian Dan had died, in order to avoid being conquered by the feudal prince, they put on the throne of Qi a younger brother of the former king Jian of Qi, Tian Jia. Tian Jiao was his minister, and Tian Xian his general in chief.    

田 榮 之 走 東 阿 , 章 邯 追 圍 之 。 項 梁 聞 田 榮 之 急 ,迺 引 兵 擊 破 章 邯 軍 東 阿 下 。 章 邯 走 而 西 , 項 梁 因 追 之 。而 田 榮 怒 齊 之 立 假 , 迺 引 兵 歸 , 擊 逐 齊 王 假 。 假 亡 走 楚。 齊 相 角 亡 走 趙 ; 角 弟 田 閒 前 求 救 趙 , 因 留 不 敢 歸 。 田 榮 乃 立 田 儋 子 市 為 齊 王 。 榮 相 之 , 田 橫 為 將 , 平齊 地 。
After Tian Rong fled to Dong’E, Zhang Han chased him and besieged him. When Xiang Liang heard that Tian Rong was in trouble, he led an army to attack Zhang Han, who was defeated before Dong’E, and had to flee West, pursued by Xiang Liang. Tian Rong was angry that the people of Qi had put Tian jia on the throne. He therefore led his soldiers back, attacked and expelled king Jia of Qi, who fled to Chu. His first minister, Jiao, fled to Zhao. The younger brother of Jiao, Tian Xian, had at first asked help from the king of Zhao, but had stayed there, not daring to come back. Tian Rong put the son of Tian Dan, Shi, on the throne of Qi. He became first minister, and Tian Heng was general in chief. Together, they pacified the territory of Qi.   

項 梁 既 追 章 邯 , 章 邯 兵 益 盛 , 項 梁 使 使 告 趙 、 齊 , 發 兵 共 擊 章 邯 。 田 榮 曰 : 「 使 楚 殺 田 假 , 趙 殺 田 角 、 田 閒 , 迺 肯 出 兵 。 」 楚 懷 王 曰 : 「 田 假 與 國 之 王 , 窮 而 歸 我 , 殺 之 不 義 。 」 趙 亦 不 殺 田 角 、 田 閒 以 市 於 齊 。 齊 曰 : 「 蝮 螫 手 則 斬 手 , 螫 足 則 斬 足 。 何 者 ? 為 害 於 身 也 。 今 田 假 、 田 角 、 田 閒 於 楚 、 趙 , 非 直 手 足 戚 也 , 何 故 不 殺 ? 且 秦 復 得 志 於 天 下 , 則 齮 齕 用 事 者 墳 墓 矣 。 」 楚 、 趙 不 聽 , 齊 亦 怒 , 終 不 肯 出 兵 。 章 邯 果 敗 殺 項 梁 , 破 楚 兵 , 楚 兵 東 走 , 而 章 邯 渡 河 圍 趙 於 鉅 鹿 。 項 羽 往 救 趙 , 由 此 怨 田 榮 。
Xiang Liang was pursuing Zhang Han, but the army of Zhang Han was larger than his. Therefore, he sent an envoy to the princes of Zhao and Qi, requesting that they sent troops and attack Zhang Han together. Tian Rong answered: “Let Chu have Tian Jia killed, let Zhao execute Tian Jiao and Tian Xian, then I will agree to send soldiers.” King Huai of Chu said: “Tian Jia once was a king, he came to me when he was in trouble, killing him would be unfair.” The prince of Zhao also refused to have Tian Jiao and Tian Xian executed to please the prince of Qi. The prince of Qi then said: “When a venomous snake bites someone’s hand, one has to have one’s hand cut off. If it bites someone’s foot, then the foot must be cut off. Why is it so? Because one’s life is threatened. Now, Tian Jia, Tian Jiao and Tian Xian do not have, for the kings of Chu and Zhao, the importance of a hand or a foot. Why don’t they have them killed? If Qin manages to impose its will over the empire again, it will tear the rebels into pieces, out of their tomb if it needs to.” But the princes of Chu and Zhao did not heed him. The prince of Qi was angry and finally refused to send troops over. Because of this, Zhang Han defeated and killed Xiang Liang, and destroyed the armies of Chu, which had to flee to the East. Zhang Han then crossed the Yellow River and besieged the king of Zhao in Julu. Xiang Yu came to the rescue of Zhao, but was nevertheless angry at Tian Rong.   

項 羽 既 存 趙 , 降 章 邯 等 , 西 屠 咸 陽 , 滅 秦 而 立 侯 王 也 , 迺 徙 齊 王 田 市 更 王 膠 東 , 治 即 墨 。 齊 將 田 都 從 共 救 趙 , 因 入 關 , 故 立 都 為 齊 王 , 治 臨 淄 。 故 齊 王 建 孫 田 安 , 項 羽 方 渡 河 救 趙 , 田 安 下 濟 北 數 城 , 引 兵 降 項 羽 ,項 羽 立 田 安 為 濟 北 王 , 治 博 陽 。 田 榮 以 負 項 梁 不 肯 出 兵助 楚 、 趙 攻 秦 , 故 不 得 王 ; 趙 將 陳 餘 亦 失 職 , 不 得 王 :二 人 俱 怨 項 王 。
Xiang Yu therefore rescued Zhao, submitted Zhang Han and his generals, and marched west and looted Xianyang. He destroyed the kings and princes which Qin had made, and displaced King Tian Shi of Qi to the kingdom of Jiaodong. His capital was in Jimo. Tian Du, a general of Qi, had participated in the campaign to rescue Zhao, he therefore was made king of Qi. His capital was in Linzi. Tian An was the grandson of the former king Jian of Qi. When Xiang Yu had crossed the Yellow River to rescue Zhao, Tian An had taken several cities north of the Ji and, leading his troops, had made allegiance to Xiang Yu. He was therefore made king of Jibei, his capital was in Boyang. Because Tian Rong had betrayed Xiang Liang, by refusing to send his soldiers help Chu and Zhao to attack Qin, he did not receive a kingdom. Chen Yu, a general of Zhao who had disobeyed, was not made king either. Both men therefore were angry at King Xiang.   

頊 王 既 歸 , 諸 侯 各 就 國 , 田 榮 使 人 將 兵 助 陳 餘 ,令 反 趙 地 , 而 榮 亦 發 兵 以 距 擊 田 都 , 田 都 亡 走 楚 。 田 榮 留 齊 王 市 , 無 令 之 膠 東 。 市 之 左 右 曰 : 「 項 王 彊 暴 , 而 王 當 之 膠 東 , 不 就 國 , 必 危 。 」 市 懼 , 迺 亡 就 國 。 田 榮 怒 , 追 擊 殺 齊 王 市 於 即 墨 , 還 攻 殺 濟 北 王 安 。 於 是 田 榮 迺 自 立 為 齊 王 , 盡 并 三 齊 之 地 。
When King Xiang returned home, all the feudal princes returned to their kingdoms. Tian Rong sent someone lead an army to help Chen Yu, who was rebelling in Zhao. He also sent troops cut off and fight Tian, who was defeated and had to flee to Chu. He kept with him king Shi of Qi, whom he prevented to go to Jiaodong. People close to King Shi said: “King Xiang is mighty and tyranical, your majesty should go to Jiaodong. If you do not go to your kingdom, you will be in danger.” Shi was afraid, therefore he fled and returned to his state. Tian Rong was angered. He chased Tian Shi, attacked him and killed him in Jimo. On its way back, he attacked and killed King An of Jibei. Tian Rong then proclaimed himself king of Qi, reuniting at last the territories of the three Qi.   

項 王 聞 之 , 大 怒 , 迺 北 伐 齊 。 齊 王 田 榮 兵 敗 , 走 平 原 , 平 原 人 殺 榮 。 項 王 遂 燒 夷 齊 城 郭 , 所 過 者 盡 屠 之 。 齊 人 相 聚 畔 之 。 榮 弟 橫 , 收 齊 散 兵 , 得 數 萬 人 , 反 擊 項 羽 於 城 陽 。 而 漢 王 率 諸 侯 敗 楚 , 入 彭 城 。 項 羽 聞 之 , 迺 醳 齊 而 歸 , 擊 漢 於 彭 城 , 因 連 與 漢 戰 , 相 距 滎 陽 。 以 故 田 橫 復 得 收 齊 城 邑 , 立 田 榮 子 廣 為 齊 王 , 而 橫 相 之 , 專 國 政 , 政 無 巨 細 皆 斷 於 相 。
When king Xiang heard of it, he was very angered and marched north to attack Qi. The armies of King Tian Rong of Qi were defeated and fled to Pingyuan. The people of Pingyuan had Tian Rong killed. King Xiang then had all the cities and suburbs of Qi burnt, all those who rebelled were put to death. The people of Qi therefore united and rebelled against him. Tian Heng, the brother of Tian Rong, rallied the scattered soldiers of Qi, assembling tens of thousands of men, and, revolting, attacked Xiang Yu in Chengyang. Meanwhile, the king of Han, leading the feudal princes, defeated Chu and entered Pengcheng. When Xiang Yu heard of it, he abandonned Qi and returned to attack the king of Han in Pengcheng. Therefore, he resumed his fight against Han, both of them preventing the other to reach Yingyang. Because of this, Tian Heng managed to regain control over the cities and fiefs of Qi. He named the son of Tian Rong, Guang, king of Qi, and became his first minister, in charge of the government of the kingdom. In fact, all matters, small or large, were decided by the first minister.

橫 定 齊 三 年 , 漢 王 使 酈 生 往 說 下 齊 王 廣 及 其 相 國 橫 。 橫 以 為 然 , 解 其 歷 下 軍 。 漢 將 韓 信 引 兵 且 東 擊 齊 。齊 初 使 華 無 傷 、 田 解 軍 於 歷 下 以 距 漢 , 漢 使 至 , 迺 罷 守 戰 備 , 縱 酒 , 且 遣 使 與 漢 平 。 漢 將 韓 信 已 平 趙 、 燕 , 用 蒯 通 計 , 度 平 原 , 襲 破 齊 歷 下 軍 , 因 入 臨 淄 。 齊 王 廣 、 相 橫 怒 , 以 酈 生 賣 己 , 而 亨 酈 生 。 齊 王 廣 東 走 高 密 , 相 橫 走 博 ( 陽 ) , 守 相 田 光 走 城 陽 , 將 軍 田 既 軍 於 膠 東 。 楚 使 龍 且 救 齊 , 齊 王 與 合 軍 高 密 。 漢 將 韓 信 與 曹 參 破 殺 龍 且 , 虜 齊 王 廣 。 漢 將 灌 嬰 追 得 齊 守 相 田 光 。 至 博 ( 陽) , 而 橫 聞 齊 王 死 , 自 立 為 齊 王 , 還 擊 嬰 , 嬰 敗 橫 之 軍 於 嬴 下 。 田 橫 亡 走 梁 , 歸 彭 越 。 彭 越 是 時 居 梁 地, 中 立 , 且 為 漢 , 且 為 楚 。 韓 信 已 殺 龍 且 , 因 令 曹 參 進 兵 破 殺 田 既 於 膠 東 , 使 灌 嬰 破 殺 齊 將 田 吸 於 千 乘 。 韓 信 遂 平 齊 , 乞 自 立 為 齊 假 王 , 漢 因 而 立 之 。
Three years after Tian Heng pacified Qi, the king of Han sent Li Sheng persuade king Guang of Qi and his first minister Tian Heng to submit. Tian Heng accepted and disbanded his army in Lixia. Meanwhile, Han Xin, a general of Han, was leading an army east to attack Qi. Before, the king of Qi had sent Hua Wushang and Tian Jie garrison Lixia, to cut the invasion route of Han. But after the envoy of Han arrived, he had the fortifications dismantled, put an end to military preparations, gave a banquet and was about to send an ambassador to conclude peace with Han. Just as he had done before, when he pacified Zhao and Yan, Han Xin, the general of Han, used a stratagem by Kuai Tong. He crossed Pingyang, ambushed and defeated the army of Qi in Lixia, and thus managed to enter Linzi. King Guang of Qi, and his minister, Tian Heng, were angered, and considered that Li Sheng had betrayed them. Therefore, they had him boiled alive. Then, King Guang of Qi fled east to Gaomi, prime minister Tian Heng took refuge in Boyang, state minister Tian Guang fled to Chengyang, and general Tian Ji encamped in Jiaodong. The king of Chu then sent Long Qie to rescue Qi, and the king of Qi united both armies in Gaomi. Han Xin, the general of Han, with the help of Cao Can, defeated them, killed Long Qie, and captured king Guang of Chu. Guan Ying, another general of Han, chased and captured the state minister of Qi, Tian Guang. As he arrived in Boyang, Tian Heng heard that king Guang had been killed and proclaimed himself king of Qi. He turned back and attacked Guan Ying, who defeated the army of Tian Heng in Yingxia. Tian Heng then fled to Liang, and allied with Peng Yue. In this time, Peng Yue occupied the territory of Liang. He was neutral, sometimes siding with Han, sometimes with Chu. After Han Xin had killed Long Qie, he ordered Cao Can to lead soldiers to attack and destroy Tian Ji in Jiaodong, and sent Guan Ying ot attack and destroy Tian Xi, the general of Qi, in Qiancheng. Han Xin therefore pacified Qi, and asked to be named viceroy of Qi, which the king of Han did.   

後 歲 餘 , 漢 滅 項 籍 , 漢 王 立 為 皇 帝 , 以 彭 越 為 梁王 。 田 橫 懼 誅 , 而 與 其 徒 屬 五 百 餘 人 入 海 , 居 島 中 。 高 帝 聞 之 , 以 為 田 橫 兄 弟 本 定 齊 , 齊 人 賢 者 多 附 焉, 今 在 海 中 不 收 , 後 恐 為 亂 , 迺 使 使 赦 田 橫 罪 而 召 之 。 田 橫 因 謝 曰 : 「 臣 亨 陛 下 之 使 酈 生 , 今 聞 其 弟 酈 商 為 漢 將 而 賢 , 臣 恐 懼 , 不 敢 奉 詔 , 請 為 庶 人 , 守 海 島 中 。 」使 還 報 , 高 皇 帝 迺 詔 衛 尉 酈 商 曰 : 「 齊 王 田 橫 即 至 , 人 馬 從 者 敢 動 搖 者 致 族 夷 ! 」 迺 復 使 使 持 節 具 告 以 詔 商 狀, 曰 : 「 田 橫 來 , 大 者 王 , 小 者 迺 侯 耳 ; 不 來 , 且 舉 兵 加 誅 焉 。 」 田 橫 迺 與 其 客 二 人 乘 傳 詣 雒 陽 。
More than a year later, the king of Han destroyed Xiang Ji and became emperor. He named Peng Yue king of Liang. Tian Heng feared to be executed, and took to sea with more than five hundred of his followers and kinsmen, settling in an island. When Gaodi heard of it, he considered that Tian Heng and his brothers had first submitted Qi, that many braves in Qi had rallied to them, that he was now in an island out of his reach, and feared that he might cause trouble some day. He therefore sent an envoy pardon the crimes of Tian Heng and summon him back. Tian Heng then politely declined, saying: “I have boiled alive your majesty’s ambassador, Li Sheng. Now, I have heard that his younger brother, Li Shang, is a brave general of Han. I therefore am afraid, and dare not accepty this imperial order. I would rather stay a commoner and keep this island in the middle of the sea.” When the envoy reported back, the emperor sent the captain of guard, Li Shang, an order which said: “Whe Tian Heng, the king of Qi, comes back, any of my foot soldiers or horsemen who will dare to move or cause trouble will be executed with all his family!” He then sent the envoy back, carrying a tablet which informed Tian Heng of the order he gave Li Shang, and said: “If you come and show your greatness, I will make you a king, else I will make you a prince. If you do not come, I will send soldiers to kill you.” Tian Heng, taking with him two clients and a small equipage, then went to Luoyang.   

未 至 三 十 里 , 至 尸 鄉 廄 置 , 橫 謝 使 者 曰 :「 人 臣 見 天 子 當 洗 沐 。 」 止 留 。 謂 其 客 曰 : 「 橫 始 與 漢王 俱 南 面 稱 孤 , 今 漢 王 為 天 子 , 而 橫 迺 為 亡 虜 而 北 面 事 之 , 其 恥 固 已 甚 矣 。 且 吾 亨 人 之 兄 , 與 其 弟 並 肩 而 事 其 主 , 縱 彼 畏 天 子 之 詔 , 不 敢 動 我 , 我 獨 不 愧 於 心 乎 ? 且陛 下 所 以 欲 見 我 者 , 不 過 欲 一 見 吾 面 貌 耳 。 今 陛 下 在 洛 陽 , 今 斬 吾 頭 , 馳 三 十 里 閒 , 形 容 尚 未 能 敗 , 猶 可 觀 也。 」 遂 自 剄 , 令 客 奉 其 頭 , 從 使 者 馳 奏 之 高 帝 。高 帝 曰 : 「 嗟 乎 , 有 以 也 夫 ! 起 自 布 衣 , 兄 弟 三 人 更 王, 豈 不 賢 乎 哉 ! 」 為 之 流 涕 , 而 拜 其 二 客 為 都 尉 , 發 卒 二 千 人 , 以 王 者 禮 葬 田 橫 。
Thirty leagues before their destination, they stopped in an inn in the village of Shi. Tian Heng excused himself to the envoy, saying : “A vassal like me who is about to meet with the son of heaven should wash himself.” They stopped for the night. Then, he told his clients: “In the past, the king of Han and me both faced south and called ourselves “we”. Now, the king of Han had become son of heaven, and I, Tian Heng, would be but a fugitive who faces north and serves him. This truly is a shame! Besides, I have boiled alive a man, and should now stand along his brother, serving the same master. As he respects the order given to him by the son of heaven, he will not dare attack me, should I, alone, feel no shame in my heart? Finally, the only reason why the emperor wishes to see me is that he wants to see what I look like. The emperor is in Luoyang, if you cut my head off and hurry over the last thirty leagues, my features will not have changed yet, and he will be able to contemplate them as he pleases.” He then cut his throat, ordering his clients to take his head with them. His followers and the envoy galloped and brought it to Gaodi, who said : “Alas, he was such a man! First a commoner, then a king, together with his three brothers, a true brave, really!” He then wept over him, and rewarded the two clients, making them officers of the guards of the capital, and granting them a command of two thousand men. Then, he had Tian Heng buried with the honours given to a king.   

既 葬 , 二 客 穿 其 冢 旁 孔 , 皆 自 剄 , 下 從 之 。 高 帝聞 之 , 迺 大 驚 ,以 田 橫 之 客 皆 賢 。 吾 聞 其 餘 尚 五 百 人 在 海 中 , 使 使 召 之 。 至 則 聞 田 橫 死 , 亦 皆 自 殺 。 於 是 迺 知 田 橫 兄 弟 能 得 士 也 。
After the burial, the two clients crawled into the tomb, though a side passage, and commited suicide, serving him to the bitter end. When Gaodi heard of it, he was much impressed, and understood that the two clients of Tian Heng were braves. As he knew that more than five hundred of his followers had been left in the island, he sent an envoy summon them in the court. But when the envoy arrived, and told them of the death of Tian Heng, they all commited suicide. Then, the emperor understood that Tian Heng and his brother really did attract braves.   

太 史 公 曰 : 甚 矣 蒯 通 之 謀 , 亂 齊 驕 淮 陰 , 其 卒 亡 此 兩 人 ! 蒯 通 者 , 善 為 長 短 說 , 論 戰 國 之權 變 , 為 八 十 一 首 。 通 善 齊 人 安 期 生 , 安 期 生 嘗 干 項 羽 , 項 羽 不 能 用 其 筴 。 已 而 項 羽 欲 封 此 兩 人 , 兩 人 終 不 肯 受 , 亡 去 。 田 橫 之 高 節 , 賓 客 慕 義 而 從 橫 死 , 豈非 至 賢 ! 余 因 而 列 焉 。 不 無 善 畫 者 , 莫 能 圖 , 何 哉 ?
Commentary by Sima QianKuai Tong’s stratagem was deep indeed ! He caused a rebellion in Qi, made the Lord of Huaiyin famous, yet finally doomed both of these two men ! Kuai Tong loved discourses, long and short. He discussed the varying strategies of the warring states, and wrote eighty one chapters. One of his students was a native of Qi, master An Qi, who met Xiang Yu. Yet, Xiang Yu had no use for his advices. Later, when Xiang Yu wanted to give fiefdoms to both men, they refused and fled. The greatest merit of Tian Heng was to be able to attract clients who respected justice, and followed him in his death. Aren’t these the bavest of all? Our times do not lack painters, yet none ever draw his portrait, why is this so?

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