Saturday, 9 February 2008

Shiji 35 - Houses of Guan and Cai

Shiji – Chapter thirty five – Fifth lineage – Guan and Cai

Shuxian of Guan and Shudu of Cai were sons of king Wen of Zhou and younger brother king Wu. The mother of king Wu had had ten sons? She was called Taisi and was the first spouse of king Fei. Her oldest son was named Bo Yikao, the second one was king Wu, Fa, the next one Shuxian of Guan, the next one Dan, the duke of Zhou, the next one Shudu of Cai, the next one Shu Zhenduo of Cao, the next one Shuwu of Cheng, the next one Shuchu of Huo, the next one Shufeng of Kang, the next one Jizai of Ran, who was the youngest son. Among the ten brothers born from one mother, only Fa and Dan were wise men and could assist king Wen. King Wen thus dismissed Bo Yikao, and made Fa his crown prince. When king Wen died, Fa was crowned as king Wu. Bo Yikao had died before.

After king Wu prevailed over tyrant Zhou of Yin, he pacified the empire, and enfeoffed his most worthy vassals and brothers. He therefore enfeoffed Shuxian in Guan, and Shudu in Cai. Both were charged to watch the son of Zhou, Wugeng Lufu, and to rule the descendents of the Yin. Shudan was enfeoffed in Lu, and made a minister of Zhou. He became the duke of Zhou. Shuzhenduo received Cao, Shuwu was given Cheng, and Shuchu had Huo. As Shufeng of Kang and Jizai of Ran were still young, their were not granted fiefdoms.

When king Wu died, king Cheng was young. Dan, the duke of Zhou, assumed control of the royal household. Shu of Guan and Shu of Cai suspected the duke of Zhou acted not in the best interests of king Cheng. Thus, they encouraged Wugeng to rebel. Dan, the duke of Zhou, was the ordered by king Cheng to attack and kill Wugeng. He killed Shu of Guan and deported Shu of Cai, who left for exile, together with ten chariots and seventy followers. Then, the ancient state of Yin was split in two. A part was given to Ziqi of Wei, as Song, in order to continue the sacrifices to the ancestors of Yin. Another was given to Kangshu, who became lord of Wei, and assumed the title of Kangshu of Wei. Jizai was enfeoffed in Ran. Ji of Ran and Kangshu of Wei were both mild mannered, so the duke of Zhou made Kangshu the minister of Justice of Zhou, and Ji of Ran the minister of construction, and charged the to assist the government of king Cheng. And soon, their name was famous in the empire.

Shudu of Cai died in exile. His son was named Hu. He mended his manners, he conformed to virtue, and cultivated benevolence. When the duke of Zhou heard of this, he promoted Hu and made him a minister of Lu, and the state of Lu was well governed. Then, the duke of Zhou spoke of him to king Cheng, who restored Hu in his fief of Cai, entrusting him with the sacrifices to the memory of Cai Shu. He assumed the title of Zhong of Cai. As the other five brothers had been dispatched to their states, none of them became officials of the imperial household.

When Zhong of Cai died, his son, Huang, the count of Cai was crowned. When Huang, the count of Cai died, his son, marquis Gong was crowned. When marquis Gong died, his son, marquis Li was crowned. When marquis Li died, his son, marquis Wu was crowned. In the time of marquis Wu, king Li of Zhou lost his kingdom and had to flee to Zhi. The lords of Gong and He took care of the government, and many feudal princes revolted against Zhou.

When marquis Wu died, his son was crowned as marquis Yi. In the eleventh year of marquis Yu, king Xuan of Zhou was enthroned. In the twenty eight year, marquis Yi died. His son, Suoshi, was crowned as marquis Li.

In the thirty ninth year of marquis Li, king You of Zhou was killed by the Quanrong, and the household of Zhou became weak and moved its capital east. The prince of Qin became a feudal prince for the first time.

In the forty eighth year, marquis Li died. His son, Xing, was crowned as marquis Gong. Marquis Gong died in the second year of his reign, his son, marquis Dai, was enthroned. Marquis Dai died in the tenth year of his reign. His son, Cuofu, was crowned as marquis Xuan.

In the twenty eight year of marquis Xuan, duke Yin of Lu was crowned. In the thirty fifth year, marquis Xuan died. His son, Fengren, was crowned as marquis huan. In the third year of marquis Huan, the people of Lu killed their lord, duke Yin. In the twentieth year, marquis Huan died, his brother, Xianwu, was crowned as marquis Ai.

In the eleventh year of duke Ai. Before, marquis Ai had take a wife in Chen. Marquis Xi had also taken a wife in Chen. As the wife of marquis Xi was going to her state, she passed through Chen, and the marquis of Cai did not treat her correctly. Marquis Xi was angered, and told king Wen of Chu: "Come attack my state, I will ask for help in Cai, and its lord will certainly come. Chu can attack it on this pretense, and benefit from it." King Wen of Chu agreed, he took marquis Ai of Cai prisoner, and took him back. Marquis Ai stayed in Chu for nine years, and died there. He died after twenty years of reign. The people of Cai crowned his son, Xi, who became marquis Mu.

Marquis Mu married one of his younger sisters to duke Huan of Qi. In the eighteenth year, duke Huan of Qi was carousing with the princess of Cai on a boat when his lady tried to rock the boat. Duke Huan tried to stop her, but she did not. The duke was angered, and sent back the princess of Cai, refusing to see her again. The marquis of Cai, unhappy, married her to his younger brother. Angry, duke Huan of Qi attacked Cai. The army of Cai was routed, and marquis Mu was taken prisoner. Marching south, duke Huan reached Shaoling, in Chu. After that, feudal lords interceded with Qi on behalf of Cai, and the marquis of Qi sent the marquis of Cai back. In the twenty ninth year, marquis Mu died. His son, Jiawu, was crowned as marquis Zhuang.

In the third year of marquis Zhuang, duke Huan of Qi died. In the fourteenth year, duke Wen of Jin defeated Chu in Chengpu. In the twentieth year, the crown prince of Chu, Shangchen, killed his father, King Cheng, and reigned in his place In the twenty fifth year, duke Mu of Qin died. In the thirty third year, king Zhuang of Chu was crowned. In the thirty fourth year, marquis Zhuang died. His son, Shen, was crowned as marquis Wen.

In the fourteenth year of marquis Wen, king Zhuang of Chu attacked Chen and killed Zhengshu of of Xia. In the fifteenth year, Chu besieged the capital of Zheng. The lord of Zheng surrendered to Chu, but Chu later released him. In the twentieth year, marquis Wen died. His son, marquis Jing, Gu, was crowned.

In the first year of marquis Jing, king Zhuang of Chu died. In the forty ninth year, marquis Jing married the crown prince, Ban, to a princess of Chu, but marquis Jing had relations with her. The crown prince killed marquis Jing and took the throne for himself, becoming marquis Ling.

In the second year of marquis Ling, prince Wei of Chu killed his king, Jia'Ao and took over the throne, as king Ling. In the ninth year, the minister of instruction of Chen, Zhao, killed his lord, duke Ai. Chu sent prince Qiji destroy Chen, and rule it. In the twelfth year, king Ling of Chu, because marquis Ling had killed his father, lured marquis Ling of Cai in Shen. He set up an ambush during a banquet, and when marquis Ling was drunk, he had him killed, and executed seventy of his guards. He then ordered prince Qiji to besiege Cai. In the eleventh month, he destroyed Cai, and established Qiji as duke of Cai.

Three years after Chu destroyed Cai, prince Qiji of Chu killed his lord, king Ling, and claimed the throne for himself, becoming king Ping. King Ping then summoned the youngest son of marquis Jing of Cai, Lu, and put him on the throne as marquis Ping. That year, Chu restored Chen. When king Ping of Chu began his reign, he wanted to have relations with the feudal princes. For this reason, he restored on their thrones the descendents of Cai and Chen.

In the ninth year, marquis Ping died. Dongguo, the grandson of Ban, marquis Ling, attacked the son of marquis Ping, and claimed the throne for himself, becoming marquis Dao. The father of marquis Dao was crown prince Yin, You. Crown prince Yin, You, was the crown prince of marquis Lin. When marquis Ping was crowned, he had him killed. For this reason, after marquis Ping died, the son of crown prince Yin, Dongguo, attacked the son of marquis Ping and ruled in his place as marquis Dao. In the third year, marquis Dao died. His brother, marquis Zhao, Shen was crowned.

In the tenth year, marquis Zhao went to the court audiences of king Zhao of Chu. He took with him two beautiful coats of fur, and gave one to king Zhao, wearing the other himself. The minister of Chu, Zichang, wanted the coat, but the marquis did not give it to him. Zichang therefore slandered the marquis of Cai, suggesting that he be kept in Chu for three years. When the marquis of Cai understood what was happening, he gave his fur coat to Zichang, who accepted it, and told the king to let the marquis of Cai return. As the marquis of Cai returned, he went to Jin, and negociated an alliance with Jin, in order to attack Chu.

In the thirteenth year, in spring, the lord of Cai met with duke Ling of Wey in Shaoling. The marquis of Cai had a private discussion with Changhong of Zhou, demanding that he be given precedence over Wey. But Wey sent his historian, tell about the deeds and virtue of Kangshu, and the precedence was given to Wey. In summer, he destroyed Shen on behalf of Jin. This angered the lord of Chu, who attacked Cai. Marquis Zhao of Cai then sent his son as a hostage in Wu, in order to jointly attack Chu. In winter, allied with the king of Wu, Helü, Cai defeated Chu and entered Yin. As the lord of Cai resented Zichang, Zichang was afraid, and fled to Zheng. In the fourteenth year, the soldiers of Wu retreated, and king Zhao of Chu restored his state. In the sixteenth year, the prime minister (Lingyin) of Chu began conspiring against Cai, in order to soothe the cries of his people, and marquis Zhao of Cai was afraid. In the twenty sixth year Confucius went to Cai. King Zhao of Chu attacked Cai, who was afraid and asked for help in Wu. The lord of Wu, considering that Cai was too far away, resolved to displace its lord close to him, so that helping each other would become easy. And marquis Zhao secretly accepted, but did not let his dignitaries know of this scheme. The people of Wu came to relieve Cai and moved its capital to Zhoulai. In the twenty eighth year, as marquis Zhao was about to go to the court audiences in Wu, the dignitaries were afraid that he would manage to displace the capital. So, their ordered a mercenary to kill marquis Zhao. After, the mercenary was executed, as a punishment for his crime, they crowned the son of duke Zhao, Shuo, who became, marquis Cheng.

In the fourth year of marquis Cheng, Song destroyed Cao In the tenth year, Tian Chang of Qi killed his lord, Duke Jian. In the thirteenth year, Chu destroyed Chen. In the nineteenth year, marquis Cheng died, his son, Chan, was crowned as marquis Sheng. In the fifteenth year, marquis Sheng died. His son was crowned as marquis Yuan. In the sixth year, marquis Yuan died. His son, Houqi was crowned.

In the fourth year of Houqi, king Hui of Chu destroyed Cai. Houqi of Cai fled, and the sacrifices to the house of Cai ceased. This happened thirty three years after Chen was destroyed.

Nobody knows where the descendents of Boyikao were enfeoffed. The descendents of King Wu, Fa, were the house of Zhou, this is told in the reigns. Shuxian of Guan rebelled and was executed. He had no descendents. The descendents of the duke of Zhou, Dan, were the rulers of Lu, this is told in the lineages. The descendents of Shudu of Cai were the rulers of Cai, this is told in the lineages. The descendents of Shu Zhenduo of Cao were the rulers of Cao, this is told in a lineage. The fate of the descendents of Shuwu of Cheng is unknown. The descendents of Shucho of Huo were the ruler of of Huo, which was destroyed during the reign of marquis Xian of Jin. The descendents of Kang Shufeng were the rulers of Wey, this is told in the lineages. The fate of the descendents of Jizai of Ran is unknown.

Commentary by Sima Qian : As Guan and Cai rebelled, their story should not be recorded. Yet after king Wu of Zhou died, as king Cheng was still you, the empire had doubts. They relied on some ten persons like Cheng Shu and Ran You, who became supports of the regime. Because of this, feudal prices respected the Zhou, and therefore, they deserve to be told in a lineage.

Shu Zhenduo of Cao was a brother of King Wu of Zhou. After king Wu prevailed upon Zhou of Yin, he gave Shu Zhenduo a fiefdom in Cao.

When Shu Zhenduo died, his son, Pi, Count Tai, was crowned. When Pi died, his son, Ping, lord Zhong was crowned. When Ping, Lord Zhong died, his son, Hou, count Gong, was crowned. When Hou, count Gong died, his son, Yun was crowned as count Xiao. When Yun, Count Xiao died, his son, Xi, was crowned as count Yi.

In the twenty third year of count Yi, king Li of Zhou fled to Zhi.

In the thirtieth year, count Yi died. His brother, Jiang, was crowned as count You. In the ninth year of his reign, count You was killed by his brother, Su, who usurped his throne, and became count Dai. In the first year of count Dai, king Xuan of Zhou had already reigned for three years. In the thirtieth year, count Dai died. His son, Si, was crowned as count Hui.

In the twenty fifth year of count Hui, king You of Zhou was killed by the Quanrong, and the capital of Zhou was therefore moved eastwards. The Zhou were very weak and feudal princes revolted against them. The prince of Qin began to be a feudal prince.

In the thirty sixth year, cout Hui died. His son, Shifu was crowned, but his brother, Wu, killed him and reigned in his place, as duke Mu. Duke Mu died in the third year of his reign. His son, Zhongsheng, was crowned as duke Huan.

In the thirty fifth year of duke Huan, duke Yin of Lu was enthroned. In the forty fifth year, the people of Lu killed their lord, duke Yin. In the forty sixth year, Hua Fudu of Song killed his lord, duke Shang and Kong Fu. In the fifty fifth year, duke Huan died. His son, Xigu, was crowned as duke Zhuang.

In the twenty third year of duke Zhuang, duke Huan of Qi became hegemon for the first time.

In the thirty first year, duke Zhuang died. His son, Yi, was crowned as duke Li. Duke Li died in the ninth year of his reign, and his son, Ban, was crowned as duke Zhao. In the sixth year of duke Zhao, duke Huan of Qi defeated Cai, and marched forward to Zhaoling, in Chy. In the ninth year, duke Zhao died, his son, Xiang, was crowned as duke Gong.

In the sixteenth year of duke Gong. In the past, while prince Zhong'er of Jin was fleeing, he had passed through Cao. But the lord of Cao had not paid him respects, and had asked to see his joined ribs. Li Fuji made him reproaches, because he secretly liked Zhong'er, but he would not listen. In the twenty first year, Zhong'er Duke Wen of Jin, attacked Cao. He captured duke Gong and returned, ordering his army not to enter the village of the ancestors of Li Fuji. Some people told duke Wen of Jin : "In the past, when duke Huan of Qi led the conferences of with the feudal princes, he brought back together people of different clans. Now, your lordship holds the lord of Cao, and is about to destroy someone of the same clan. How then could you lead the feudal princes?" Jin thus sent back and restored duke Gong.

In the twenty fifth year, duke Wen of Jin died. In the thirty fifth year, duke Gong died. His son, Shou, was crowned as duke Wen. Duke Wen died in the twenty third year of his reign. His song, Qiang, was crowned as duke Xuan. Duke Xuan died in the seventeenth year of his reign. His brother, Fuchu, was crowned as duke Cheng.

In the third year of duke Cheng, duke Li of Jin attacked Cao. He took duke Cheng prisoner and brought him back. Then he freed him again. In the fifth year, Luan Shu of Jin and Yan of Zhonghang sent Cheng Hua kill his lord, duke Li. In the twenty third year, duke Cheng died. His son, Sheng, was crowned as duke Wu. In the twenty sixth year of Duke Wu, prince Qiji of Chu killed his lord, king Ling, and reigned in his place. In the twenty seventh year, duke Wu died. His son, Qing (Xu), was crowned as king Ping. In the fourth year, king Ping died. His son, Wu, was crowned as king Dao. That year, there were fires in Song, Wei Chen, and Zheng.

In the eighth year of duke Dao, duke Jing of Song was crowned. In the ninth year, duke Dao went to the court audiences of Song, but the lord of Song held him captive. The people of Cao crowned his brother, Ye, who became duke Sheng. When Duke Dao died in Song, his body was sent back to be buried.

In the fifth year of duke Sheng, Tong, the brother of duke Ping killed duke Sheng, and claimed the throne for himself. He became duke Yin. In the fourth year of duke Yin, Lu, the brother of duke Sheng killed duke Yin and claimed the throne for himself. He became duke Jing. In the fourth year, duke Jing died. His son, Boyang, was crowned.

In the third year of Boyang, in the state, someone dreamt that all lords and princes were standing in the temple of the land, and that they were plotted the destruction of Cao. Shu Zhenduo of Cao stopped them, and demanded that they wait for Gongsun Qiang, which they agreed. In the morning, he went to look in the capital of Cao, but there was no such person. The man who had dreamed warned his son: "We are about to be destroyed, if you hear that a person named Gongsun Qiang has been entrusted with the government, you must leave Cao. If you don't, you will suffer the calamities in Cao." After Boyang was enthroned, he like all things related to bow hunting. In the sixth year, a countryman of Cao, Gongsun Qiang, liked bow hunting, he shot a white goose and offered it to the prince, and went on discussing bow hunting with him. Because of this, the prince consulted him on government matters. Boyang was delighted and made him one of his favourites. Gongsun Qiang then became minister of construction, and consulted on government matters. The son of the dreamer than left the country.

Gongsun Jiang told the count of Cao about hegemony. In the fourteenth year, the count followed his advice, and turned his back at Qin to attack Song. But when count Jing of Song attacked him, the people of Jin did not come to his rescue. In the fifteenth year, Song destroyed Cao, they captured Yang, the count of Cao and Gongsun Jiang, brought them back and killed them. Thus ended the ancestral sacrifice of Cao.

Commentary by Sima Qian : In my opinion, when duke Gong of Cao did not listen to Xi Fuji, the three hundred dignitaries in large chariots in his state already knew that his virtue was not enough to establish a state. When it came to the dream of Zhenduo, did he not intend to continue the ancestral sacrifices of Cao? If Gongsun Qiang had not tried to change the government, would the sacrifices to Shuduo have ceased?

No comments: